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Commonly Performed Retina Investigations

With increasing number of Diabetics and Hypertension patients in our country, there is increase in number of complications associated with it. Retina related complications (due to diseases like Diabetic Retinopathy, Vascular occlusions) are a common cause of concern nowadays for Ophthalmologists. Another cause of worry is increasing life expectancy which is associated with a common condition called as Age-Related Macular degeneration. All these above-mentioned retina diseases are increasing legal blindness burden in our country.
Several Retina investigations are performed in management of these conditions. These investigations help us in baseline documentation, to know progression of the damage to the retina and to assess response to treatment. In this write-up we will highlight commonly performed Retina related investigations.

OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)
OCT is one of the most commonly performed retina test. OCT represents a non-invasive method for cross-sectional SCANNING of the internal retinal structures. OCT helps us to visualize Retina layer by layer. With modern technology depth and resolution of imaging in scan is getting better and better. With enhanced ability to image the choroid, retina and vitreous, our diagnostic capabilities are greater than ever. These advancements have revolutionized ophthalmic practice over the last decade.

Common eye related conditions where OCT test is required are Diabetic Maculopathy, Age related Macular degeneration, Glaucoma, macular hole, central serous Retinoapthy(CSR) and in certain corneal diseases. With the help of OCT the extent of fluid collection etc in retinal layers can be better assessed.

Normal OCT scan

Abnormal OCT scan

FFA (Fundus Fluorescence Angiography)
Second most commonly performed Retinal test is FFA. Unlike OCT, this is an invasive investigation where Fluorescein dye is injected in one of peripheral blood vessels in the arm to study Retinal/Choroidal circulation. FFA helps us to determine areas of Blockage / Leakage in Retinal Vasculature. Very rarely patients may experience nausea, vomiting, syncope attack. Hence it is performed under observation of an anaesthesiologist. It is to be avoided in pregnant females, patients with chronic Kidney disease and in those patients, who earlier had severe allergic reaction during procedure.

FFA is commonly performed in Diabetic Retinopathy, Age related Macular degeneration, Central Serous Retinoapthy(CSR) and retinal vascular occlusions.

Normal FFA

FFA in patient with diabetic retinopathy

B-Scan
B scan is ultrasonography of the eye. This is performed when you don’t have clear retinal view for complete assessment. This is non-invasive and painless test with no complications.

Conditions like Vitreous haemorrhage, Advanced cataract and Eye injuries / Infection Retinal can’t be seen and needs B scan support to visualize Retina behind such opacities.

Normal B scan

B scan image showing Retinal detachment

About Dr. Yogesh Patil:
Dr. Yogesh Patil (MBBS, MS (Ophth), Fellow Vitreo-Retinal Surgery) is a Vitreo- Retinal Surgeon at Advanced Eye Hospital and Institute. He has achieved remarkable competence in the treatment of various diseases involving the retina, vitreous and macula as well as in performing various Vitreo-retinal surgeries.

About Advanced Eye Hospital and Institute:
Advanced Eye Hospital and Institute in Navi Mumbai is one of the best eye hospitals in Mumbai.  Eye check-up rooms and the operation theatres are state-of-art and equipped with the best diagnostic and surgery machines. Personalised care, infection free modular operation theatres and beautiful ambience compliment the cutting-edge eye care offered at AEHI. Besides treating patients from Kharghar, Nerul, Vashi and Panvel, patients from all over western India travel to AEHI for world class eye care management.